Combined vascular malformation
What is a combined vascular malformation?
A combined vascular malformation involves two or more types of vessel abnormalities. Any of the four types of vascular birthmarks (capillary, lymphatic, venous or arteriovenous) may be combined.
Combined malformations are typically accompanied by overgrowth of soft tissues (skin, fat and muscle) and bones. Most combined malformations involve limbs. They often look like an enlarged body part with a mark on the skin.
How are they diagnosed?
With physical examination, and sometimes they can be seen with prenatal ultrasounds. MRI scans can show the extent of the malformation and X-rays can determine any effects on bone growth.
This depends upon the type and areas involved. Malformations on extremities such as fingers and toes are treated with limb elevation and using compression garments. Other combined malformations may require surgical excision, laser therapy, sclerotherapy, embolisation (non-surgical blocking of blood vessels), and/or an overall treatment strategy that combines a variety of approaches used over time. They should be medically managed by appropriate members of interdisciplinary teams.
Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome consists of three symptoms often seen together: capillary malformation, venous malformations and limb hypertrophy (extra growth of a limb). The syndrome is present at birth but the port wine stain is often the only visible sign. It can be difficult to diagnose until other symptoms become apparent. It affects about one in every 20,000 to 40,000 children.
This site does not provide medical advice and is
not a substitute for medical or professional care, and if you see a
birthmark growing or changing significantly, see a